Metabonomics (metabonomics) refers to the analysis of group indicators, high-throughput detection and data processing, and the dynamic metabolic changes of the overall body or tissue cell system of graduate students, especially for endogenous metabolism, genetic variation, environmental changes and even various. The subject of the characteristics and effects of substances entering the metabolic system.
“Genomics and proteomics tell you what might happen, and metabolomics tells you what really happened.”
• Metabolomics is a research method that imitates the research ideas of genomics and proteomics, quantitatively analyzes all metabolites in the organism, and finds the relative relationship between metabolites and physiological and pathological changes, and is an integral part of systems biology.
• Most of its research objects are small molecular substances with a relative molecular mass of less than 1,000.
• Advanced analysis and detection technology combined with pattern recognition and expert systems and other computational analysis methods is the basic method of metabolomics research.
•The samples are mainly extracts of cells and tissues of animals and plants.
• The main technical means are nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatography (HPLC, GC).
Characteristics of metabolomics
• Focus on endogenous compounds
• Quantitative and qualitative research on small molecule compounds in biological systems
• The up-regulation and down-regulation of the above compounds indicate the effects of diseases, toxicity, genetic modification or environmental factors
• The above knowledge of endogenous compounds can be used for disease diagnosis and drug screening.
The advantages of metabolomics
1. Effective small changes in gene and protein expression will be amplified on metabolites, making detection easier;
2. The technology of metabolomics does not need to establish a database of whole genome sequencing and a large number of expressed sequence tags (EST);
3. The types of metabolites are much smaller than the number of genes and proteins. The metabolites in each organism are about 103 orders of magnitude, and there are thousands of genes in the bacterial genome;
4. Because the metabolites are similar in all biological systems, the technology used in metabolomics research is more general;
Research Methods of Metabolomics Analysis
1. Combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS): The flow direction of gas chromatography is an inert gas. In gas-solid chromatography, an adsorbent with a large surface area and a certain activity is used as the stationary phase. When the mixed sample of multiple components enters the chromatographic column, due to the different adsorption force of the adsorbent for each component, after a certain period of time, the operating speed of each component in the chromatographic column will also be different. The weakly adsorbed components are easily desorbed and leave the column first to enter the detector, while the most strongly adsorbed components are least likely to be desorbed and therefore leave the column last. In this way, the components can be separated from each other in the chromatographic column, sequentially enter the detector to be detected and recorded.
2. Liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS): Mass spectrometry is an analytical method for measuring the ion charge-to-mass ratio (charge-mass ratio). Its basic principle is to make the components in the sample in the ion source Ionization occurs, generating positively charged ions with different charge-to-mass ratios, which form an ion beam through the action of an accelerated electric field and enter the mass analyzer. In the mass analyzer, the electric field and the magnetic field are used to make the opposite speed dispersion occur, and they are separately focused to obtain a mass spectrum, thereby determining its mass.
3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): Nuclear magnetic resonance is a physical phenomenon that occurs when a nucleus in a static magnetic field is under the action of another alternating magnetic field. Generally speaking, nuclear magnetic resonance refers to the technology that uses nuclear magnetic resonance phenomenon to obtain molecular structure and internal structure information of human body.
The basic principle of nuclear magnetic resonance: When the spin nucleus in the external magnetic field is irradiated with radio frequency, and the energy of the radio frequency is exactly equal to the energy level difference of different orientations of the nuclear magnetic moment, the low-energy nucleus will absorb the radio frequency transition and cause the high-energy state-nuclear magnetic resonance phenomenon. Specific atoms in a specific magnetic field can only absorb specific radio frequencies, thereby forming a nuclear magnetic resonance signal.
Advantages: Achieve non-destructive, non-selective analysis of samples. It is the only technology that can both qualitatively and quantify organic compounds in the micromolar range.
Disadvantages: The sensitivity is relatively low and it is not suitable for the analysis of low concentration metabolites.
Application and prospect of metabolomics
• Toxicology: Metabolomics is the use of high-throughput detection technology to detect various physiological and biochemical indicators of the body after drug exposure at the overall level of metabolites. These indicators cover almost all the links where toxicological effects occur, combined with traditional The end point of the pathology can provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanism of drug toxicity.
• In disease research and diagnosis: In recent years, metabolomics technology has been widely used in the diagnosis and research of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. In terms of cardiovascular diseases, Brindle analyzed the serum metabolome of coronary heart patients using 1HNMR-based metabolomics technology. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the disease group and the normal group metabolic map. The study believes that metabolomics technology can not only quickly , Accurate diagnosis of coronary heart disease can also distinguish the severity of the disease.
• Drug metabolism research: drug metabolism research based on metabolomics methods combines high-resolution analytical instruments (such as UPLC-TOFMS) and multivariate data analysis techniques, and is not limited to known specific metabolic pathways, non-targeting drug metabolites The comprehensive screening is helpful to discover some new metabolites that cannot be detected by traditional methods, and provides a new way for the study of drug metabolism in vivo.
The above is related to metabolomics services, metabolomics testing, and metabolomics analysis. The content comes from the Medicilon official website.