Cognitive ability refers to the ability of the human brain to process, store and extract information. Although everyone wants to stay sharp forever, the impact of age on cognitive ability is a fact that cannot be ignored. Especially in the elderly, the decline in executive ability and the decline in learning and memory is very common. Therefore, the development of a treatment method that can alleviate age-related cognitive decline such as Alzheimer’s is a very important research that has made great contributions to human society.
According to a new study by scientists at the University of California, San Francisco, an experimental drug can reverse the age-related decline in memory in mice. This ISR inhibitor drug has been shown in laboratory studies to restore memory function after a few months of traumatic brain injury (TBI), reverse the cognitive dysfunction of Down syndrome, prevent noise-related hearing loss, and treat Certain types of prostate cancer even enhance the cognition of healthy animals. Medicilon offers tumor mouse model for different diseases.
In the new study published in the journal eLife recently, the researchers showed that the young cognitive ability of old mice quickly recovered, while the brain and immune cells were rejuvenated, which could explain the improvement of brain function.
The study found that an experimental drug can reverse the age-related memory decline in mice.
Studies have shown for the first time that age-related cognitive loss may be mainly caused by a reversible physiological “block” rather than permanent degradation. The aging brain does not permanently lose the necessary cognitive abilities as commonly believed, but these cognitive resources still exist, but they are blocked in some way due to the vicious cycle of cellular stress.
ISR usually detects problems with protein production in cells (which may be signs of viral infection or genetic mutations that promote cancer), and responds by braking the cell’s protein synthesis mechanism. Walter and colleagues discovered that this safety mechanism is essential for removing abnormally behaving cells, but if stuck in a certain location in tissues such as the brain, it can cause serious problems because the cells lose their ability to function normally.
Cognitive dysfunction in patients with TBI is generally considered to be premature aging, which led Rosi and Walter to question whether ISR may also be the molecular basis for purely age-related cognitive decline. As we all know, aging can damage the cell protein production of the entire body, leading to the production of chronic inflammation, which may eventually lead to the extensive activation of ISR.
In this new study, researchers led by Dr. Karen Krukowski, a postdoctoral fellow in the Rosi lab, found a hidden platform to train adult animals to escape from a water maze, which is often difficult for older animals to do. of. But animals and young mice that received small doses of ISR inhibitors each day during the three-day training process were able to complete this task, much better than older animals that did not receive the drug.
Then, the researchers tested how long this cognitive rehabilitation phenomenon can last, and whether it can be extended to other cognitive skills. A few weeks after the initial ISR inhibitor treatment, they trained the same mice to escape the maze, and the exit of the maze changed every day. Mice that received a brief ISRIB treatment three weeks ago still showed a higher level of cognition, while the untreated mice continued to be at a lower level.
To understand how ISR inhibition might improve brain function, the researchers studied the activity and anatomy of hippocampus cells, a brain region that plays a key role in learning and memory, one day after giving animals a single dose of ISRIB. They found that the common characteristics of neuronal aging disappeared almost overnight: the electrophysiological activities of their neurons became more active, their responses to stimuli became more sensitive, and the cell-to-cell connection became closer, and these Features are usually only seen in young mice.
Researchers are continuing to study how ISR disrupts cognition during aging and other conditions, and understand how long the cognitive benefits of ISRIB may last. In addition, studies have found that ISR inhibitors also change the function of T cells in the immune system, and the function of T cells can easily cause age-related dysfunction. These findings indicate that the drug can improve the cognitive ability of elderly animals and may have an impact on diseases ranging from Alzheimer’s disease to diabetes, which are related to increased inflammation caused by the aging of the immune system.
Facts have proved that chronic ISR activation and the resulting blockage of cellular protein production may play a role in various neurological diseases. The following is a partial list of these diseases based on a recent review conducted by Walter of Baylor College of Medicine and his colleague Mauro Costa-Mattioli, which may be treated with ISR reset agents such as ISRIB:
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Age-related cognitive decline
Traumatic brain injury
Walter said that ISRIB has been licensed by Calico, a company engaged in the biology of aging, in San Francisco, California, and other pharmaceutical companies have begun to use ISR to target diseases. So far, the research team has not observed that ISRIB can cause serious side effects.