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Analysis on the Role of Cytokine Detection in the Evaluation of Drug Treatment Effect

2021-02-09
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Cytokines that can regulate the physiological functions of a variety of cells are small molecular protein substances with biological activity secreted by cells. The concentration of cytokines and their receptors can reflect the pathological process of the disease. Through the detection of cytokines and the detection of the level of soluble receptors, the effects of different drugs in treating diseases can be evaluated.

Cytokines are a type of non-antibody, non-complement soluble substance produced by activated lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and some matrix, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Interferon (IFN) is a non-specific defensive factor produced by host cells after virus infection. It has anti-virus, anti-tumor, immune regulation and control cell proliferation effects. Cytokine detection can determine the body’s immune function, which is of great significance for disease diagnosis, disease course observation, curative effect judgment and treatment monitoring. The researchers compared the anti-tuberculosis activity of apenem in vitro, the anti-tuberculosis activity in macrophages and mice, and systematically explored the feasibility study of cytokine evaluation drugs on tuberculosis models. The study found that only IFN-γ among the cytokines measured can be used as an index to evaluate the anti-tuberculosis activity of drugs.

Researchers have also tested the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, TNF-α, and IL-8 in plasma and sputum of newly-treated tuberculosis patients and their mRNA expression, and observed the levels of the above-mentioned cytokines in the plasma and sputum of newly-treated tuberculosis patients. Changes and characteristics, analysis of relevant influencing factors, understanding of the host’s immune mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and exploration of its clinical application value provide evidence for revealing the immunological mechanism of tuberculosis, assisting in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, and evaluating the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis treatment.

Solid-phase enzyme-linked immunospot technology (ELISPOT method), flow cytometry intracellular staining method and flow cytometry microsphere technology (CBA) are all methods for cytokine detection. Medicilon Biopharmaceuticals can provide cytokine and biomarker testing services for medical R&D personnel. Its biological analysis department has complete infrastructure, advanced equipment and high-end technology platforms such as flow CBA, MSD, and Luminex systems. Various single plex or multiplex multi-form cytokine and biomarker detection.

The results of cytokine testing can also be used as indicators for vaccine immunological testing. For vaccines, immunogenicity is the basis for their effectiveness. Therefore, evaluating its immunogenicity is an important aspect of considering the efficacy of vaccines. If a researcher compares the levels of cellular immune response in mice with different AIDS vaccine candidates in my country, the researchers will immunize BALB/c mice with 6 AIDS candidate vaccines according to their respective immunization procedures, isolate spleen cells, and use enzyme-linked Immunospot method (ELISPOT) and intracellular factor staining method (ICS) were used to detect the level of cellular immune response to HIV-specific peptides [1]. The results of the study found that there are differences in the breadth and intensity of the mouse cellular immune response caused by different AIDS vaccine candidates in my country. ELISPOT or ICS detection of Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ can be used as an evaluation index for vaccine-induced cellular immune response in mice.

Cytokines play an important role in the physiological and pathological processes of immune cell differentiation and development, immune regulation, inflammatory response and tumor metastasis; they can mediate the interaction between cells and participate in tissue repair. Cytokines have the function of regulating the immune function of the body, and their expression level can reflect the immune status of the whole body and local microenvironment. In short, in drug research and development, the influence of drugs on cytokine levels can be explored to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical search for therapeutic drugs.

[1] Evaluation of the cellular immune response of mice with different AIDS vaccine candidates in my country [J].

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