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Dec 07,2020
Research on IL-33 in central nervous system diseases
Some neurological diseases are seriously plaguing people’s lives and affecting people’s health. The lack of suitable animal models that can truly reproduce the pathology and characteristics of human diseases also severely restricts the understanding of disease mechanisms. Central nervous system disease models are of great significance for studying the pathogenesis of central nervous system diseasesRead more
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Oct 18,2018
Immunotherapeutic Antibody Helps Prevent Neurodegeneration
Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes say they developed an antibody that blocks the inflammatory and oxidative activity of fibrin, which contributes to neurodegeneration in the brain, without compromising the protein’s clotting function. To come up with a precise and highly effective antibody, the researchers focused on targeting only a small region of the fibrin protein thatRead more
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Sep 11,2018
Family Genetics Key to Severity of Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Techniques such as high-throughput genome sequencing have allowed scientists to identify hundreds of genetic variants that are linked with increased risk of different neurodevelopmental or neuropsychological disorders, such epilepsy, schizophrenia, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, two people with the same known risk variant won’t necessarily present with the same symptoms.   ARead more
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Sep 04,2018
MS Drug Slows Brain Shrinkage by Nearly Half
A team led by researchers from the Cleveland Clinic’s Neurological Institute reports that a promising drug slowed brain shrinkage in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) by nearly half. Limited therapies are currently available for this disabling form of the disease, according to the scientists.     The definitive results of the Phase II trial (“Phase 2Read more
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Aug 30,2018
New Brain Cell Has Unique Shape, Behavior, Gene Signature
Two research teams – one focused on gene expression, the other on cell shape and behavior – converged on a previously unknown type of brain cell. Because it resembles a rose deprived of its petals, the newly discovered brain cell has been called the “rosehip neuron.” Intriguingly, it may be unique to human brains, orRead more
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Aug 10,2018
Transport Protein Study May Lead to New Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders
Researchers at the Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) have found new evidence of how certain transport proteins are working at the molecular level, paving the way for new, improved drugs to treat psychiatric disorders. Their study (“The LeuT-fold neurotransmitter:sodium symporter MhsT has two substrate sites”) is published in PNAS. “Crystal structures of the neurotransmitter:sodiumRead more
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Jul 27,2018
Parkinson’s Symptoms Associated with Contact Sports
In recent years awareness about the neurological risks associated with playing contact sports has risen exponentially. This increased mindfulness stems from the mounting evidence that repetitive head impacts from contact sports and other exposures are associated with the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and dementia. Now, new data from a team of investigators atRead more
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Jul 17,2018
Fragile X Symptoms May be Helped with New Pharmacological Approach
Scientists report that a pharmacological strategy can alleviate multiple behavioral and cellular deficiencies in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and a major single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorders. The study (“Isoform-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition ameliorates a broad range of fragile X syndrome-associated deficits in aRead more
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Jun 07,2018
Artificial Human Prions Created in the Lab
Brain-wasting disorders often evoke a sense of fear and panic from both researchers and the general public alike. For scientists, this sense of dread stems from gaps in the knowledge base of the full pathogenesis for these diseases and a deficiency in effective treatments. What is understood, however, is the cause of wasting disorders likeRead more
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May 17,2018
Alzheimer’s Disease Linked to Loss of Epigenetic Protection
An international team of researchers has linked a gene known as peptidase M20-domain-containing protein 1 (PM20D1) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in humans. An analysis of genetic and epigenetic study data, combined with data from human tissue samples and subsequent experiments in mouse models, indicated that increased levels of PM20D1 in the brain have a protectiveRead more
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Apr 19,2018
Novel Research Model Offers Hope to ALS and MS Patients
Scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden have developed a new disease model for neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) that can be used to develop new immunotherapies. The model is described in a paper (“Fatal Demyelinating Disease Is Induced by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages in the Absence of TGF-β Signaling”) in NatureRead more
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Apr 19,2018
Human Brain Organoids Thrive in Mouse Brains
Brain organoids, also known as mini-brains, are tiny clumps of brain cells grown from stem cells that researchers are using to investigate the neural underpinnings of autism and other neurological disorders. But the organoids typically grow in culture for only a few months before they die, limiting their usefulness as models of real brains.  OrganoidsRead more
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Mar 26,2018
Mutations in Noncoding DNA Linked to Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Pathogenic de novo mutations in coding DNA have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as developmental brain dysfunction, which can lead to impaired learning and language. In fact, according to one estimate, 42% of patients suffering these disorders carry mutations in genes that encode proteins. But it has been unclear how many patients, including patientsRead more
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Mar 12,2018
Pregnancy Obesity Alters Fetal Liver Epigenetics and Metabolic Pathways
Could a mother’s diet and excess weight during pregnancy predispose her offspring to become obese and develop metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases later in life? U.S. researchers report on new molecular and genetic studies in baboons that support existing epidemiological evidence suggesting that maternal obesity (MO) may “preprogram” offspring to develop cardiometabolic diseases in adulthoodRead more
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Mar 12,2018
Alzheimer’s Amyloid Gets Immune System Trim
Immune cells in the brain have a trigger, and when it is pulled, it prompts immune cells to degrade toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) proteins. This new finding, from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Research Institute (SBP), helps explain why a faulty trigger appears to raise the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Increasing the genetic expression of the triggerRead more
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Feb 22,2018
Drinking Red Wine May Help Prevent Tooth Decay and Gum Disease
Prior research has found that drinking a glass of red wine a day may protect against cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. The latest laboratory studies by researchers in Spain now suggest that the polyphenols in red wine could also protect against the bacteria that cause tooth cavities and gum disease. The research, headed byRead more
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Feb 22,2018
Blood/Urine Biomarker Tests Developed for Autism Spectrum Disorders
Autsim Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are defined as developmental disorders mainly affecting social interaction and they can include a wide spectrum of behavioural problems. These include speech disturbances, repetitive and/or compulsive behaviour, hyperactivity, anxiety, and difficulty to adapt to new environments, some with or without cognitive impairment. Since there is a wide range of ASD symptomsRead more
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Feb 01,2018
Increasing Sirt4 Activity May Help Treat Age-Related Metabolic Decline and Disorders
Scientists report that fruit flies inhibited from producing the protein Sirt4 are short-lived, while flies modified to make extra Sirt4 are live longer. Flies lacking Sirt4 show increased sensitivity to starvation, decreased fertility and activity, and an inability to use energy stores in their bodies, add the researchers, who say their work suggests that increasing Sirt4Read more
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Jan 31,2018
Immune Disorder Trigger Identified
Scientists in the U.S. have identified a promising target for treating immune system-related disorders that are associated with mutations in a gene known as GTPase of immunity-associated protein 5 (Gimap5). The researchers, led by the team of Kasper Hoebe, Ph.D., at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Research Foundation, used inhibitors of glycogen kinase 3β (GSK3β) –Read more
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Jan 18,2018
Targeting Immature Myeloid Cells to Treat Inflammatory Disorders in Newborns
New research led by The Wistar Institute, in collaboration with Sun Yat-sen University in China, has characterized the transitory presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in mouse and human newborns, revealing a critical role of these cells in regulation of inflammation in the early stages of life. Their study (“Transitory Presence of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor CellsRead more
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