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Factors affecting immunogenicity

2021-07-28
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Heterogeneity: That is, the substance is different from the host’s own components or the body’s immune cells have never been in contact with it. The essence of the immune response is to recognize and reject the foreign body, so the antigen that stimulates the immune response generally needs to be a foreign body.

Certain physical and chemical properties:

Heterogeneity: That is, the substance is different from the host’s own components or the body’s immune cells have never been in contact with it. The essence of the immune response is to recognize and reject the foreign body, so the antigen that stimulates the immune response generally needs to be a foreign body.

Certain physical and chemical properties: The molecular mass of a substance with good immunogenicity is generally above 10 ku. Within a certain range, the greater the molecular mass, the stronger the immunogenicity. The molecular conformation of the antigen determines whether the antigen can coincide with the antigen receptor on the surface of the lymphocyte, thereby initiating an immune response, and changes may change its immunogenicity. The physical state of the antigen is different, and its immunogenicity is also different.

Susceptibility to antigen processing and presentation

Host Biological System

The genotype of the recipient animal: the responses of different species of animals to the same immunogen are very different. Different strains of the same animal, and even different individuals have very different responses to an immunogen, which is different from immune response genes. Its expression is closely related to the development and physiological conditions of the animal itself.

Age, sex and health status of recipient animals: Generally, young animals have stronger ability to produce antibodies than young animals; females are stronger than males, but the immune response ability of pregnant animals is significantly suppressed.

Immune method impact

The dosage, the route of vaccination, the number of vaccination and the choice of adjuvant all significantly affect the body’s response to antigen. The dosage depends on the types of different animals and immunogens. Too much can cause animal death or immune tolerance; too little can not stimulate the immune response. The interval between immunization injections should be appropriate. The best route is intradermal immunization, followed by subcutaneous, then intramuscular injection, intraperitoneal and intravenous injection.

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